Introduction to information technology (IT): From the concept of information technology emerged in the second half of the last century, innovation and technological development have made possible the emergence of a sector that manages equipment, programs, applications and systems to process information.
The appearance of the computer in the middle of the last century gave birth to the concept of hardware and created around it a sector of new activity to which the software was added, with operating systems, programs, databases, applications, etc., and the different peripherals that each technological moment required (storage systems, printers, scanners, card readers, etc.). At first, computing was limited to companies and large institutions that had huge computing centers. But the big explosion occurred with the appearance of the personal computer in the eighties of the last century. From that moment on, information technology enters all places, i.e. homes (personal computing), jobs, shops, large vehicles, etc. and it becomes portable. Being used everywhere influences all personal and professional aspects of human beings and IT becomes broader and more powerful.
What is information technology?
The computer technology, combined with telecommunication, is revolutionizing the world we know and taking it towards a new digital world and towards an information and knowledge society. This revolution comes, basically, from technological innovation and from all the possibilities it offers. The revolution affects all aspects of information technology. From the point of view of equipment, large computers have been transferred to personal computers or laptops, tablets or e-readers, although the most important thing today is that there are computers or processors incorporated into any device, system or network that it develops in the world.
The mobile phone that most of the citizens carry in their pockets is an excellent example of the fact that computers occupy less space, have more capacity to process and accompany us more.
If we talk about software, operating systems, databases, word processors, spreadsheets, programming languages, editing programs or browsers multiply the possibilities of equipment. The options of all these variants of the software are very numerous and are available to users in different ways, some of which are free. With the popularization of smart mobile phones (smartphones) and tablets, there has been an explosion of specific programs, applications or apps, which enhances the usefulness and need of these devices, in combination with the mobility features offered by telecommunications.
One of the aspects of IT that has more importance nowadays is that of security, understood in a double sense. On the one hand, security to avoid unwanted access to data centers, modern version of the old calculation centers, computers and the programs and information contained in them, with the ease of access to networks and the development of media such as the Internet have multiplied. On the other hand, and given the presence of computers in all types of businesses, companies or institutions, it is necessary a type of security that guarantees the continuity of activities and business. A part of the professionals of the IT sector focuses its efforts on all security issues as support to the management of the entities and tries to reduce and eliminate the risks and threats, cyber attacks, etc.
There are many other aspects that stand out in the evolution of IT today, such as electronic invoicing, which aims to eliminate this type of paper documents and offer all the possibilities offered by digitization, and the handling of large volumes of data generated in many fields of activity. This is what is called business intelligence in the business environment or a more generally a large number of data. The management and use of that information that is generated and stored in some of these fields bring with it important challenges for information technologies and many opportunities for commercial development and benefit for society.
In this review, we can not forget another very important aspect in recent years that is producing many expectations and in many cases realities. It’s about cloud storage or cloud computing. Through a combination of information technology and telecommunications, cloud storage allows companies and Public Administrations to establish new ways of working, based on agility, flexibility, and adaptation to different sizes and needs. In the new model that the cloud brings, services, programs, and applications are available where the user needs them, beyond the structure and infrastructure of the company or institution. Entities hire a global service and do not worry about how it materializes. They only know what is available when and where they need it. This type of service in the cloud is closely associated with mobility and implies economic savings for users and once again emphasizes issues of security, privacy, and continuity in the activity or business.
In the above summary, what is information technology? They are a basic information processing tool for any activity, derived from the first computer and computer that were born in the last century. Society is changing and they promise to continue making it towards limits and in ways that we can not even imagine today