Thursday , June 20 2019

What is Computer? Introduction to Computer

What is Computer? A computer is a programmable machine (usually electronic), capable for receiving digitalized non-manipulated data (text, number, image, video, audio), process it, and produce a result in the form of information (meaningful data) that could be understood.

Data: facts and figures (numbers, text, image, videos, and audios, etc), either could be in a raw format is called data.

Information: processed and meaningful data is called information.

The modern computer is based on electronic and digital. It consists of hardware and software, i.e. wires, transistors and ICs (integrated circuits) and software, i.e., system software and application software.

Introduction to Computer:

The name of a computer has been derived from the Latin word “computare” means “to calculate”. Hence it can perform arithmetical calculation, e.g. Adding, Subtracting, Multiplying and dividing to find an immediate answer to the problems.

A computer is now used in each place of work. It is used to type documents, send an email, doing accounting job, keeping of record. It is also used by various departments, i.e. engineering, education, health, banks, industries, stores, markets, judicial, police, defense, and telecommunication, etc.

Parts of a Computer:

A personal computer is not a single component, but it consists of different parts. Following are the basic parts of a computer. It is generally referred to as the hardware.

  • CPU (Central Processing Unit): this is the main component of a computer. It is also known as the brain of the computer. All the programs (list of instructions) are executed in this part.
  • RAM (Random Access Memory): a primary memory which allows the computer to store (temporarily) the entire executing program.
  • Mass Storage Device (Hard Drive): a secondary memory which allows the computer to store a large amount of data permanently and can retrieve it again and again.
  • Input Devices: these are the devices which allow the user to feed data/instructions to the machine, i.e. keyboard, mouse, scanner and CD-ROM, etc.
  • Output Devices: these are the devices that allow the users to see the final result (information).
  • Bus: it is a communication system that transmits data from one component to another inside a machine. This refers to hardware (wires, optical fibers, etc.) as well as software (communication protocols).

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